Middens: are defined as prehistoric refuse-heaps usually consisting of bones and shells. In the Australian context middens are usually found on the coast. These middens are the refuse-heaps left by Aboriginal people after they had feasted on coastal shellfish and oysters. Middens often cover large areas and are very deep attesting to the their use over decades.
The midden illustrated is situated in Boodjamulla National Park. This midden is composed of freshwater mussel shells (Alathyria sp.) known as Malumalu in the local Waanyi language. This is an unusual midden because it is situated near freshwater. The midden is situated close to the creek that flows through a sacred gorge in the National Park and is near a rock art site.